Bear Creek Trail to Corwina Park (Lair o’ the Bear Park, CO)


Bear Creek Trail, Lair o’ the Bear Park, November 2017

One of the easiest mountain hikes in the Denver area, the Bear Creek Trail offers a family-friendly adventure through Lair o’ the Bear Park, which is roughly halfway between Morrison and Evergreen, Colorado. Heading west from the Lair o’ the Bear parking area, the hard-packed trail hugs a gently-flowing stream before entering shady Bear Creek Canyon, flanked by walls of stone. The 1.25-mile hike is mostly flat and level, ending at a trail fork as the path enters Corwina Park. (Note: Ambitious hikers can continue on as the Bear Creek Trail narrows and climbs steeply through Corwina and O’Fallon Parks to Panorama Point and beyond.)

Bear Creek Trail Lair o the Bear Park hike information

Bear Creek Trail Lair o the Bear Park hike map

Map of Bear Creek Trail, Lair o’ the Bear Park; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails. (Check out the PDF version and interactive map)

The hike

The parking area at Lair o’ the Bear Park is a 5-mile drive west from Morrison on Colorado State Highway 74. Bear left into the parking lot, which is sure to be close to capacity on most sunny weekends. (Note: Lair o’ the Bear is one of the busiest parks in the Jefferson County park system.) Dusty trails circle the lot in all directions, but the Bear Creek Trail is the most evident, heading west through relatively dense vegetation. (Note: The Bear Creek Trail also heads southeast, past the bathrooms, toward Idledale; this section is shorter, however, and less scenic.)

Stay straight on the main trail as a series of spurs head off to the left, including the junction with the Bruin Bluff Trail at Dipper Bridge at around 1/10 mile. By now the woods have opened up, revealing a sun-soaked meadow across the stream to the north, while tall grasses and willows line the creek. Approach the first of two junctions with the Creekside Loop Trail at about 2/10 mile. Take a left and follow this short detour for streamside views, or continue straight over a minor tributary before emerging at the second junction, where the two trails come back together, at 3/10 mile.


Bear Creek Trail, looking back to the east

As the Bear Creek Trail continues southwest, it passes over a second, shaded tributary that is difficult, but possible, to pass in a wheelchair. As the trees dissipate again, the buzz of Highway 74, emanating from atop the slope to the right, is omnipresent and is by far the trail’s biggest flaw. Just beyond, however, the sounds of vehicle traffic are mitigated by the charming flow of Bear Creek, which squeezes through a narrow notch at about the ½-mile mark. Spruce-strewn hillsides and high, blocky walls dominate the far side of the creek, making this a picturesque place to stop for a snack or to try your hand at fly-fishing, which is popular in the park.


Bear Creek Canyon

Now heading northeast, traverse the wide, steel bridge over Bear Creek at around 7/10 mile. Soon after, the trail rounds a sharp left-hand bend and continues to follow the creek southeast. With high rock walls on the left, a peculiar sight comes into view, across the creek, at 9/10 mile: Dunafon Castle, built in 1941. Once an extravagant private home, this is now a popular wedding venue, complete with a Medieval-like appearance, a well-manicured lawn, a water wheel, and several man-made waterfalls. It is off-limits to passersby, however, as the “private property” signs facing the trail make abundantly clear.


Dunafon Castle, from the Bear Creek Trail in Lair o’ the Bear Park

Beyond the castle, the increasingly rocky trail follows the creek, now flowing from the northwest, for another ¼ mile to the end of the hike. At 1.2 miles, the Bear Creek Trail abruptly cuts left, climbing a steep slope as it enters Corwina Park. The larger, smoother path continues straight to the western reaches of Lair o’ the Bear Park, which ends with little fanfare at a metal gate. A wide bridge leads across Bear Creek, followed by a steep, gravel ascent to a very small parking area along Highway 74.


Beautiful Bear Creek

Hikers with time and energy can continue up the steep Bear Creek Trail continuation to Panorama Point, which offers views of Mount Evans and the Front Range. (Note: Use caution while hiking, as the trail is chock-full of speedy mountain bikers.) All others should turn around, retracing your steps back to the start of the 1.25-mile walk.


Bear Creek in Lair o’ the Bear Park

Extra credit

Try the 1.5-mile Bruin Bluff Trail Loop, which connects with the Bear Creek Trail, climbs to vistas of the valley, and weaves through conifer forests.

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Appalachian Trail – Maryland Section 3: Wolfsville Road to US 40, including Black Rock & Annapolis Rocks (South Mountain State Park, MD)


Black Rock, South Mountain State Park, November 2017

The Appalachian Trail’s (AT) 41-mile stretch through Maryland is known for following long, relatively level ridgelines, making for—in general—a milder experience than other parts of the AT. Maryland Section 3, a 9.2-mile segment between Wolfsville Road and US 40, typifies this characterization; its miles of flat and easy walking are punctuated only by a short and steep climb at the start, occasional ups and downs in the middle, and a steady descent to US 40 at the end. (Note: Maryland’s seven sections are outlined in the Potomac Appalachian Trail Club’s Appalachian Trail Guide to Maryland and Northern Virginia.) Section 3 features some of Maryland AT’s best vistas at Black Rock and Annapolis Rocks, making the final third of this north-to-south hike one of the area’s most crowded. Though mostly easy walking, Section 3 would make for a beast of an 18-mile out-and-back, so day hikers might consider doing it as a shuttle, leaving one car at the Wolfsville Road parking area while parking another at the US 40 trailhead near Myersville, Maryland. (Note: Hikers with one car and less time should consider a shorter, 7.5-mile out-and-back to Annapolis Rocks and Black Rock.)

Appalachian Trail MD Section 3 Wolfsville Rd to US 40 Annapolis Rocks Black Rock hike information

Appalachian Trail MD Section 3 Wolfsville Rd to US 40 Annapolis Rocks Black Rock map

Map of Appalachian Trail Maryland Section #3 (Wolfsville Rd. to US 40), South Mountain State Park; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails, (Check out the PDF version, interactive map, and MapMyHike track)

The hike

Maryland Section 3 begins where the 4-mile Section 2 ends, crossing Wolfsville Road at a point roughly two miles south of Smithsburg, Maryland. Surrounded by thick woods, look for a small, graveled parking lot on the east side of the road; this is the local access point for the Appalachian Trail (AT).

From the parking area, head north on the blue-blazed path, which parallels the road and merges with the white-blazed AT after 1/10 mile. Bear left on the AT, traversing Wolfsville Road. Once across, the trail passes through a grove of hemlocks and begins a sharp ascent that covers 500 feet in elevation in ½ mile. Occasional switchbacks ease the climb, with some limited views through the trees as South Mountain extends north.


Upward climb on the Appalachian Trail

The trail climbs to an initial flat at 6/10 mile, and then pushes up and over a rocky ridge before dropping briefly and settling into leisurely level terrain at about 7/10 mile. The AT bears southwest, following the right flank of the lengthy mountain.

For the next three miles, the path stays relatively stable at around 1,800 feet. In the winter season, it is possible to peek through the trees to the west, overlooking the vast Cumberland Valley, which extends more than 70 miles from Pennsylvania to the Potomac River. Crags of blocky quartzite, the predominant rock layer on South Mountain, line the ridge on the left.


Quartzite ridges along the AT

It is not until around 2.25 miles that the trail breaks with its level and steady direction, suddenly breaking southeast and climbing up and over the quartzite spine of South Mountain. Here the trail becomes considerably rockier, and the views shift from westward over the Cumberland Valley to east over Middletown Valley. A rock slide at around 2.5 miles offers a rare unobstructed view through a window in the trees, overlooking Middletown Valley and the Catoctin Mountain range. This is a good spot to stop for a snack.


Eastward view to Middletown Valley and Catoctin Mountain

Beyond the overlook, the rock-studded trail crests the section’s high point (1,895’) then weaves up and down a pair of smaller summits. At around mile 4, the AT drops into Black Rock Gap; stay right at the junction with an old forest road at 4.2 miles. From here the trail sheds more than 150 feet in elevation as it approaches a woody hollow along the western slopes of South Mountain. At around 4.75 miles, the steep Thurston Griggs Trail bears off to the right, while Pogo Memorial Campsite appears up the slope on the left. (Note: The camp is named for Walter “Pogo” Rheinheimer, Jr., a member of the Maryland Mountain Club who drowned in a canoe accident near Harper’s Ferry in 1974.) Stay straight at the junction.

Bearing southwest, the AT begins to climb and crosses intermittent Black Rock Creek at about 4.9 miles. The incline eases as the trail turns west, approaching the ridgetop again at around 5.3 miles. Just steps farther, a marked spur leads east to Black Rock Cliff, undoubtedly one of the finest vistas in the area.


View of Cumberland Valley from Black Rock Cliff

From Black Rock, Cumberland Valley appears stitched together by a patchwork of forest and farms, with the distant North Mountain and Bear Creek Mountains forming its western flank. Interstate 70 stretches out across the valley toward Hagerstown, Maryland, the largest town in the area. (Note: Cumberland Valley is alternatively known as Hagerstown Valley.) To the southwest, one can see as far as the West Virginia panhandle and northern Virginia beyond.

Beyond the Black Rock viewpoint, the trail passes a second, unmarked viewpoint within minutes. The view from this outcrop is just as good as the first Black Rock vista.


View from unmarked viewpoint near Black Rock Cliff

Past these two overlooks, the AT settles into another gentle stroll amid oaks, hickories, and occasional pines. After passing through a sea of mountain laurel, hikers will approach a trail junction at 6.5 miles. Bear right onto the 0.2-mile spur trail to Annapolis Rocks, one of the most popular mountain destinations in Maryland. From the start, the blue-blazed path drops and passes a picnic table, information kiosk, and pit toilet on the right. Thirteen campsites, including two group sites, are available in the area, with a spring about a ¼-mile walk away.


View southwest from Annapolis Rocks

From the information sign, it is another 1/10 mile to Annapolis Rocks, chunks of quartzite perched on the edge of the west-facing cliff. While not as expansive as the views at Black Rock, the vistas here are arguably just as good: wooden hillsides spilling into the colorful valley, with Greenbrier Lake visible down to the southwest. On clear days, Virginia’s Blue Ridge Mountains, Massanutten Mountain, and Great North Mountain are visible on the horizon.


Annapolis Rocks


View of Greenbrier Lake, with Blue Ridge, Massanutten Mountain, and Great North Mountain on the horizon

Once you have had your fill, turn around and retrace your steps for 2/10 mile, this time uphill, back to the AT. Bear right to begin the final leg of Section 3.

After dropping to a low saddle, the AT skirts the east flank of a ridgetop knob, where occasional outcrops offer obscured views of Middletown Valley. At about 7.6 miles, the trail begins a brief descent, followed by a steep uphill at 7.9 miles. Rising to a low saddle north of Pine Knob (1,714’), the AT then begins a sharp descent and reaches a junction at 8.4 miles, where a spur trail bears right to Pine Knob Shelter. Stay left. A second junction is reached 2/10 miles later; bear left again.

Head southwest on the last stretch, passing under telephone lines and dropping to a low pass where US Highway 40 cuts through the South Mountain. The trail approaches Interstate 70 at 8.9 miles; bear left as the trail follows the interstate and crosses under US 40. Take a left at the next junction, leaving the AT behind, and climb up to a paved but unused road.

One hundred yards down the road, you will reach the AT parking area along US Highway 40, sure to packed on a nice summer afternoon. Hopefully you will have left a second car here to shuttle back to the start; if not, turn around and retrace your steps—for 9.2 miles—back to Wolfsville Road. Allot between 4-6 hours for the one-way journey.

Posted in Maryland, Moderate Hikes, South Mountain State Park | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Tibbet Knob (George Washington National Forest, VA/WV)


Tibbet Knob, George Washington National Forest, October 2017

Tibbet Knob (2,920’) is the slightly lower, less crowded cousin of nearby Big Schloss, situated along the Virginia-West Virginia border in George Washington National Forest. The summit offers sweeping views of Trout Run Valley in the heart of the Great North Mountain range, while a lower viewpoint ½ mile from the trailhead looks out across the majestic Shenandoah Valley to the east. This short hike, beginning at the Wolf Gap Campground, is often paired with Big Schloss, though its steep climbs and rocky tread make it a more difficult. (Note: See here for a description of the Big Schloss hike.)

Tibbet Knob Trail hike information George Washington National Forest

Tibbet Knob George Washington National Forest map

Map of Tibbet Knob hike, George Washington National Forest; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails, (Check out the PDF version, interactive map, and MapMyHike track)

The hike

The 2.8-mile out-and-back begins across Wolf Gap Road from the Wolf Gap Campground, deep in the heart of the Great North Mountain area. (Note: The hike to Big Schloss heads the opposite direction, beginning along the campground drive to the east.) There is a small, rugged parking area on the west side of the road, not recommended for vehicles with low clearance. The Tibbet Knob Trail begins just beyond.

Hikers will start on a relatively flat and wide path that weaves through dense woods. Passing a picnic table and fire pit on the right, the Tibbet Knob Trail bears southwest on the Virginia side of the border. Leaving the crowds of the Wolf Gap area well behind, the trail begins to climb sharply at 1/10 mile amid beech, oak, and maple trees. There are obscured views to the east as the path flattens out at around 1/3 mile and passes minor rock outcrops on the left.


Rock outcrops along the Tibbet Knob Trail

After a brief descent, the trail comes to a fork at around ½ mile. Bear left on a short spur that leads to a magnificent viewpoint looking east to Bowers Mountain (1,878’), Threemile Mountain (2,060’), and the Shenandoah Valley. Two additional ranges are visible on the horizon: the 50-mile long Massanutten Mountain, with the higher Blue Ridge Mountains of Shenandoah National Park beyond. The view southeast, seemingly a sea of endless green, is one of the best in the region.


View southeast down Shenandoah Valley from the first viewpoint


Bowers Mountain and Threemile Mountain, with Massanutten Mountain and the Blue Ridge Mountains beyond


View northeast from the outcrop

Back on the main trail, continue left and descend to a low saddle. After flattening for roughly ¼ mile, the narrow singletrack resumes the climb up to Tibbet Knob at around 8/10 mile. By now you are heading northwest and have crossed firmly into West Virginia. After rounding a bend at about the 1-mile mark, the incline steepens. After a brief respite, the path approaches the base of a rocky outcrop at 1.25 miles. Ascend the steep rocky terrace and continue along the relatively level trail as it enters a patch of mountain laurel.


Ascending the first rock scramble


Second rock scramble

Repeat the process again at 1.35 miles, where hikers must mount a second rock scramble. Now near the top of Tibbet Knob, the path weaves through a pine thicket and emerges at a tremendous viewpoint, the nominal end of this hike. Trout Run Valley unfolds below, bounded by Long Mountain (3,128’), Halfmoon Mountain (2,826’), and Mill Mountain (3,293’).


View of Trout Run Valley and Mill Mountain from Tibbet Knob

Up to the left, a gradually sloping ridgeline climbs to meet Long Mountain at an area called Devils Hole, while Great North Mountain continues beyond to the southwest. Endless blankets of trees are interrupted only by small pockets of rustic farmsteads, while no road can be seen or heard.


View southwest toward Devils Hole

The beauty of this vista arguably exceeds even that of Big Schloss (2,964’), which is itself visible to the northeast. (Note: Big Schloss is the second closest summit on the east side of the valley.)


Mill Mountain from Tibbet Knob (Big Schloss is the second peak in the chain)

The outcrop at Tibbet Knob is small, meaning you may have to share this ideal lunch spot with others. Even on a busy day, however, the crowds are likely to be a fraction of those on Big Schloss. Just beyond the viewpoint is a lovely campsite shrouded by pines. While the trail continues for another mile, it is largely devoid of views, making this a good turnaround point for day hikers.

The return journey is nearly all flat or downhill. Allot between 2-3 hours for this hike, allowing for plenty of time to take in the trail’s two excellent overlooks.

Extra credit

If you haven’t done so already, it is worth also hiking the 4.2-mile out-and-back to Big Schloss. The combination of the two hikes makes for a fine day in the Great North Mountain range.

Posted in George Washington National Forest, Moderate Hikes, Virginia, West Virginia | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Big Schloss (George Washington National Forest, VA/WV)


Big Schloss, George Washington National Forest, October 2017

At 2,964 feet, Big Schloss is not the highest peak on Great North Mountain—which stretches for 50 miles along the Virginia-West Virginia border—but it is arguably the grandest. Named for the German word for palace or castle, Big Schloss offers panoramic views of some of the most beautiful terrain in the mid-Atlantic: rugged hillsides, majestic valleys, and endless mountains on the horizon. The downside of these renowned vistas, of course, is considerable foot traffic; the moderate, 2.1-mile hike to the peak can be crowded on weekends. This castle in the sky is extensive, however, offering a place for everyone to sit and soak in the tremendous scenery at the summit.

Big Schloss trail hike information George Washington National Forest

Big Schloss trail map George Washington National Forest

Map of Big Schloss hike, George Washington National Forest; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails, (Check out the PDF version, interactive map, and MapMyHike track)

The hike

The hike to Big Schloss begins at the Wolf Gap Campground, situated right on the state boundary in George Washington National Forest. (Note: The campground is a 14-mile drive from either Wardensville, West Virginia to the northeast or Woodstock, Virginia to the southeast.) Park at the turnoff for Wolf Gap, then walk clockwise around the paved campground loop drive to reach the trail’s start (or simply follow the crowds).

For now on the West Virginia side of the border, the route to the summit begins by following the Mill Mountain Trail for 1.9 miles. The path bears northeast from Wolf Gap, climbing gradually but steadily through a forest of maples, oaks, and beech trees. After rounding a right-hand bend at ¼ mile, the incline steepens as the trail climbs the western slopes of Mill Mountain.


Ascending Mill Mountain

Mill Mountain constitutes a small section of Great North Mountain, a larger area that is better understood as a mountain range than a single peak. Great North Mountain, in turn, is part of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, characterized by their long mountain belts, separated by green, parallel valleys. They owe their formation to a mountain-building period around 300 million years ago.


Following the ridgeline to Big Schloss

The Mill Mountain Trail passes batches of mountain laurel and switchbacks up the hillside, with some limited views back to Wolf Gap and the slopes of Tibbet Knob (2,930’). A hefty rock cluster appears on the right at 6/10 mile, while the trail cuts left and levels off slightly. Pushing eastward, the trail crests the ridgeline at the ¾-mile mark. Cutting left, the trail follows a relatively thin spine with views in both directions—west and north into West Virginia and east and south into Virginia. The best views are to the right, overlooking the Stony Creek watershed in the direction of Little Schloss (2,624’) and the Shenandoah Valley.


View east to Little Schloss and the Shenandoah Valley

Heading northeast along the ridgeline, the trail descends gradually with intermittent views to the east. Clumps of Tuscarora sandstone dot the mountaintop; this hard layer of rock resists erosion and caps many of the mountains in this area.

The mountaintop widens at around 1.3 miles as the trail continues through hardwood forest. An uphill section begins at 1.5 miles and gains roughly 80 feet over the next 1/3 mile. Take a right at the trail junction at 1.8 miles, leaving the Mill Mountain Trail for the short Big Schloss Trail.

This final spur to the summit begins with an initial ascent, then levels off as rocky ledges offer the hike’s first unobstructed views of Trout Run Valley to the north and west. Except for a handful of farmsteads, this valley appears virtually untouched by man. Long Mountain (3,128’) forms the opposite flank, while Tibbet Knob rises to the southwest.


Trout Run Valley with Tibbet Knob and Long Mountain

Just beyond, the trail approaches the summit, accessed by way of a wooden bridge that traverses a cleavage in the sandstone. Now in the “keep” of the castle, it is a short climb to the high point, where a 270-degree panorama unfolds. (Note: By now you are firmly within the Virginia state boundary.)


Wooden bridge to the summit knob


Mill Mountain and Tibbet Knob from the summit

The rest of Trout Run Valley is visible to the left, bounded by Long Mountain and Halfmoon Mountain (2,717’) to the north. Mill Mountain continues to the northeast, extending beyond Big Schloss to the highest point in the Great North Mountain range at 3,293 feet.


North to Trout Run Valley, from Big Schloss


Northeast to Mill Mountain, Sugar Knob, and Little Sluice Mountain

The long ridge to the east is Little Sluice Mountain (3,120’), ending abruptly at Little Schloss. Looking down toward the Shenandoah Valley, the mountains cast shadows over a patchwork of farms. East of the valley is Massanutten Mountain, itself outdone by the taller Blue Ridge Mountains of Shenandoah National Park beyond.


Southeast to Shenandoah Valley, with Massanutten Mountain and Blue Ridge beyond


It should take around 1 ½-2 hours to reach the summit, warranting some rest time to eat and admire the beautiful surroundings. Once ready, head back the way you came to complete the 4.2-mile round-trip. The entire hike should take between 2.5-4 hours, depending on pace and the number of breaks.


Big Schloss

Posted in George Washington National Forest, Moderate Hikes, Virginia, West Virginia | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Appalachian Trail – Maryland Section 2: Raven Rock Hollow to Wolfsville Road (South Mountain State Park, MD)


Appalachian Trail, October 2017

Maryland Section 2 is almost certainly the least interesting of Maryland’s seven Appalachian Trail (AT) sections. (Note: As delineated by the Potomac Appalachian Trail Club’s Appalachian Trail Guide to Maryland and Northern Virginia.) It does offer variety, however, as it weaves through dense deciduous forest and open fields in a quiet and peaceful section of Maryland. There is also a lot of human history, with remnants of rock walls scattered alongside the AT. The route picks up where Appalachian Trail Maryland Section 1 leaves off, climbing from Raven Rock Hollow to Buzzard Knob and Warner Gap Hollow and finishing four miles later at Wolfsville Road. Through-hikers will find rest at the modest Ensign Cowall Shelter in this section.

Appalachian Trail MD Section 2 hike information

Appalachian Trail MD Section 2 Raven Rock Hollow to Wolfsville Road map

Map of Appalachian Trail – Maryland Section 2, Raven Rock Hollow to Wolfsville Road, South Mountain State Park; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails, (Check out the PDF version, interactive map, and MapMyHike track)

The hike

Day hikers can park alongside the shoulder on Raven Rock Road at the crossing of the Appalachian Trail (AT). Raven Rock Hollow marks a clear departure from much of the Maryland AT, as lengthy South Mountain breaks down into smaller, shorter peaks. Opposite Raven Rock to the north, the southbound AT hugs the road for the first 1/10 mile, with Little Antietam Creek rippling over rocks down to the right.


Crossing Little Antietam Creek

After crossing the stream, the trail leaves the road behind and bears south toward Buzzard Knob (1,560’). While the path does not reach the top of Buzzard Knob, it does climb to a high pass to the east of the summit. After gradually climbing out of Raven Rock Hollow, the ascent begins in earnest at around 2/10 mile. Minutes later, the path surmounts a partly collapsed rock wall, a reminder that this area used to be inhabited by farmers and livestock owners. The climb eases thereafter as the AT crests a woody ridgeline, reaching a local high point at about the ½-mile mark.


Rock wall along the Appalachian Trail

Reaching the pass ushers in a sharp descent of around 200 feet to Warner Gap Hollow. The AT spits out onto unpaved Warner Hollow Road at 8/10 mile; bear left on the road for about 30 yards, then follow the white blazes as they leave the gravel drive and continue south. The path quickly crosses another flowing stream and returns to climbing.

The second ascent is considerably longer than the first, gaining 500 feet in elevation and stretching for about ½ mile before levelling off. The lower reaches of the hillside are dotted with more remnants of old rock walls. At 1.2 miles, the trail passes under power lines, which cut abruptly across the mountain slopes in a straight line bearing southeast.


Power lines along the AT

Beyond the tree cut, the trail weaves in and out of a series of woody ravines, then climbs to the base of a shady slope littered with mammoth boulders. The incline picks up as it clears the cluster of quartzite deposits and skirts the edge of a 10-15 foot wall speckled with green moss. The trail crosses a minor stream at 2.1 miles, then reaches another local high point at about 2.3 miles.

With the sound of zooming vehicles ahead, the trail suddenly bursts out of the woods and traverses a brushy field at 2.45 miles. The field ends at Foxville Road, a relatively busy thoroughfare in Maryland’s high country.


Field leading to Foxville Road

Cross the road and continue on the white-blazed AT as it enters a dense thicket. The trail approaches a second, much larger field awaits at 2.75 miles and begins a ¼-mile jaunt across this scenic, grassy hillside. A thin tree line marks the boundary between Washington and Frederick Counties. Off to the left is a row of farmsteads along the Pleasant Valley Road.


Crossing an open pasture on the AT


Residents of Pleasant Valley from the AT

At the 3-mile mark, the AT reenters the deciduous forest and meanders gradually uphill to the section’s high point (1,713’) at about 3.4 miles. (Note: Here the trail technically enters the jurisdiction of South Mountain State Park for the first time.) Skirting a handful of rocky outcrops, the AT drops to cross a second clearing with power lines at 3.6 miles. The downward slope steepens beyond and passes the Ensign Cowall Memorial Shelter on the right. Stop here for a snack—or, for onward backpackers, a night’s rest. (Note: There is reportedly a spring nearby, though I was unable to locate it; in any case, it’s probably better to filter water back at one of the creeks you have already passed.)


Ensign Cowall Shelter

From here the AT continues down the final stretch. Bear right at the trail fork at 3.9 miles, following the white-blazes as the path bears north. Four miles from the start, blue blazes direct hikers to the left to the local AT parking area; the white-blazed AT ends shortly thereafter, with little fanfare, at Wolfsville Road. This is the end of Section 2, with a much longer, rockier, and steeper Section 3 beyond.

Traversing the 4-mile route to this point should take 2-3 hours one-way. For those lucky enough to have a car parked at Wolfsville Road, your journey ends here. All other day hikers will have to turn back, retracing your steps back to Raven Rock Hollow.

Posted in Maryland, Moderate Hikes, South Mountain State Park | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Sentinel Cave (Lava Beds National Monument, CA)


Sentinel Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, July 2017

Sentinel Cave is the longest of the “easy” caves in California’s Lava Beds National Monument, as well as one of the only lava tubes in the park with multiple entrances. Inside the cave, the roughly 2/10 mile traversed by hikers is relatively flat and wide, making this a good option for small children with an interest in spelunking. Sentinel Cave is a section of what was once the “master tube” for the Headquarters System, the main thoroughfare for lava flowing through a complex network of subterranean passages.

Sentinel Cave Lava Beds hike information

The hike

Sentinel Cave is located near the end of the Cave Loop Road, requiring one to drive nearly all the way around the circuit on the one-way drive. Skip the Upper Sentinel Cave Trailhead and instead park at the Lower Sentinel Cave parking area. (Note: Per the suggestion of a park ranger, this hike enters through Lower Sentinel and exits Upper Sentinel.)


Setting out for Lower Sentinel Cave

The hike begins with a ¼-mile, partly paved track that sets out across desert scrub toward the lower entrance. The towering mound to the southeast is Caldwell Butte (5,197’), one of several cinder cones in this volcanic area. After wrapping around to the north, the trail approaches the Lower Sentinel Cave entrance, a modest rupture in the lava tube that floods the cave with sun. Here the pavement ends, and a stony path leads down into the tunnel.


Lower entrance to Sentinel Cave

Once inside, a well-worn path cuts through a jumble of basalt, while a series of step marks on the right wall indicate various depths of the lava flows that once passed through the tube.


Thick benches in Sentinel Cave

A few minutes into the cave, just as darkness has set in, beams of light pour in again from a beautiful skylight. The roof between the two prominent holes in the ceiling forms a delicate natural bridge.


Looking up at the beautiful skylight

Beyond the sunny cupola, the trail passes through a breakdown jam, and a smaller tube crisscrosses the main passage overhead. The next, left-hand bend features thick benches on either side.

About halfway through the cave, hikers will reach a metal staircase, situated next to the pillar that gave the cave its name: The Sentinel, a modest spire on the right. Above the stairs, the path enters a large room littered with fallen boulders. The trail skirts the right edge of the breakdown.

The next feature of note is a 7-foot pit, guarded by metal railings, that leads down to the cave’s lower levels. Here there is also a tube inside a tube, partly visible looking up-tunnel from just beyond the pit.

Continuing marginally uphill, the path crosses a steel catwalk over a 15-foot chasm. Briefly diverting from the main passage, the trail weaves through a thinner side route that avoids the rocky jumble of the primary, collapsed tube. Soon enough, however, the two tunnels merge and the trail climbs another metal staircase.


Metal bridge over a 15-foot drop

From atop the stairs, you can see the light of the upper entrance ahead. Weaving amid fallen basalt, the trail makes for the exit, emerging out into the sunlight again after about 2/10 mile underground. The Upper Sentinel Cave entrance is notably larger than the lower entry. Straight ahead, Sentinel Bridge crosses over the fallen trench of basalt rock; climbing up onto the bridge offers a good look at the entrance and landscape beyond.


Standing atop Sentinel Bridge

From here, bear right on the paved trail, which leads around 125 yards to the Upper Sentinel Cave parking area. Bear right on the road and follow the drive for another 1/10 mile to the Lower Sentinel Cave Trailhead, where your car awaits.

Allot between 30 minutes to an hour for this loop hike through one of Lava Beds’ best and most easily navigated caves.

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Golden Dome Cave (Lava Beds National Monument, CA)


Golden Dome Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, July 2017

Unlike limestone caves, lava tubes are usually characterized by their drab, colorless interior. Not so with Golden Dome Cave, which sports shiny ceilings, made possible by tiny bacteria that give the lava tube a golden sheen. Golden Dome Cave is found along the Cave Loop Road in California’s Lava Beds National Monument, a volcanic paradise for cave explorers. Pay attention when navigating the tunnels as the passages form a figure-8, making it easy to walk in circles.

Golden Dome Cave Lava Beds hike information

The hike

Golden Dome Cave is the first cave along the Cave Loop Road after it forks, beginning a one-way circuit. Look for the parking area on the left. The cave entrance—a small skylight that was blasted open around 1934—is a 75-foot walk from the road.


Descending into Golden Dome Cave

Use caution when descending the metal ladder into the cave, as so-called “headache rock” takes its toll on many visitors. Once at the bottom, flip on your headlamp and bear in mind your surroundings: the lava tube heads both north and south. Head in the direction of the slant of the ladder (north), heading into the larger and wider section of the cave, which boasts the best collection of gold, actinomycete-laden ceilings.


Looking back at the skylight entrance

Immediately you will notice the coarse floors, laden with cauliflower aa, a type of cooled lava that is rare in the pahoehoe-dominated cave system at Lava Beds. Watch your footing as the tunnel bears left, then right, and enters a chamber with a partial roof collapse; a well-trodden path weaves through the fallen rocks, which are mostly neatly piled out of the way to the right. Ceiling heights range from 7-10 feet, sparing visitors from having to duck their heads. Small lavacicles extend down from above, while whole patches of gold are visible along parts of the ceiling.


Gold on the ceiling

Just beyond, the trail forks—the broad thoroughfare continues left, while a shorter passage bears right over a foot-high hump. Head right, following the ovular tube past another partial ceiling breakdown. The collapse reveals a smaller, 1-2 foot cleavage on the right.


Golden Dome Cave

The cave then opens up into a room with 12-foot ceilings; in the center of the floor lies a short and plump rafted block, a loose rock that was carried away by lava and hardened in place as the lava cooled. Gold streaks line the left wall, and ornate patches cover a small ancillary tube on the right.


Elaborate ceiling in Golden Gome Cave

Another collapse reveals a cavity flush with gold, while the broader passage splits again. (Note: A left-hand turn connects with the broader channel you left earlier. This is the tie in the middle of the figure-8.) Staying right leads deeper into the cave, into a chamber with excellent lavacicles. The path splits again, but not for long: these two passages meet up again within 15-20 feet.

The ceiling in the next room is coated with gold, arguably the most impressive of the hike. Squeeze through a relatively narrow section to enter the Golden Dome chamber, which has the highest ceilings in the cave but, strangely enough, not as much gold as previous rooms. A pair of dead-end passages marks the farthest accessible reaches of the cave.

The Golden Dome room is the final curl in the figure-8, and continuing around the left-hand bend begins the return journey. This tube has an upper and lower deck, with the former visible high above but well out of reach. A corollary tube bears off to the right, while the main tunnel weaves left through a gold-studded room and up a two-foot lava fall. The ceiling drops to as low as 5 feet in this section.

Now back near the middle of the figure-8, the route passes a large rock fall; the trail keeps to the right side. At the end of this chamber, the path reaches the start of the figure-8, with the tunnel back to the entrance heading right.

Continue straight for 1/10 mile until the sun’s rays begin to shine again. Climb the ladder and exit the cave. (Note: It is possible to continue straight to the south side of the cave, which connects after around 2/10 mile with the Garden Bridges Cave. This section, however, is not as scenic and requires squeezing through a one-foot passage to reach the Garden Bridges section.)

Back out of the subterranean landscape, the parking area is a short walk from the cave ladder. Allot around a half-hour for this caving experience, one of the most unique in the park.

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Skull Cave (Lava Beds National Monument, CA)


Skull Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, July 2017

Lava tubes, cavities in the earth once filled with flowing lava, are the principal attraction of northern California’s Lava Beds National Monument, which boasts the greatest concentration of them in the United States. Reaching as wide as 60 feet in diameter, Skull Cave is one of the area’s largest lava tubes and offers one of the easiest caving adventures in the park. Highlights include a dramatic entrance, a natural bridge, and icy floor at the end of the cave.

Skull Cave Lava Beds hike information

The hike

To reach Skull Cave, bear northwest from the Lava Beds Visitor Center on California Route 10 for 1.3 miles, then take a right onto the paved Lyons Road. Continue to the end of the road, where there is parking for the Skull Cave hike and nearby Lyons Trail.

The descent into Skull Cave begins with a staircase heading down into a collapsed section of what was once a “master tube.” This underground channel was the principal highway for lava flowing through the Modoc Crater Lava Tube System; today, the tube is largely a jumble of charcoal-colored basalt, remnants of the old cave roof.


Stream of basalt, the result of a massive roof collapse

Bearing northeast, the trail descends deeper, aiming for the wide aperture of Skull Cave. The cave was named by 19th century spelunker E.L. Hopkins, who reportedly found a large collection of animal bones, including two human skeletons, inside the cave.


Entering Skull Cave

About 50 yards from the start, the Skull Cave Trail zig-zags through the entrance, then hugs the right side of the lave tube as the grade levels out. Once inside, the temperature drops considerably. About 1/10 mile from the trailhead, now in full darkness, you will reach a flight of stairs that brings hikers down to the lower level of the cave, passing directly under a natural bridge.


Stairs and natural bridge in Skull Cave

The hike ends at the ice-covered floor of the lower level, situated at the bottom of the stairs. Once part of the cave tour, visitors are now barred from stepping onto the ice and must instead view from behind a metal grate.


Icy floor at the end of the hike

Once complete—you won’t want to stick around for long in the sub-freezing temperatures—return the way you came, exiting back out into daylight. Allot about 20-30 minutes for this round-trip hike in one of Lava Beds’ easiest caves.

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Sun Notch Trail (Crater Lake National Park, OR)


Sun Notch Trail, Crater Lake National Park, July 2017

Sandwiched between two precipitous peaks, the Sun Notch Trail is a short and scenic circuit hike in Oregon’s Crater Lake National Park that features five fine views of Crater Lake in quick succession. From the caldera rim, situated atop a cliff that drops more than 1,000 feet, hikers can see Wizard Island, the Phantom Ship, Applegate Peak, Dutton Cliff, and Mount Thielsen. Considered ADA-accessible by the park, the loop nonetheless has steep inclines that make pushing wheelchairs quite difficult.

Sun Notch Trail hike information Crater Lake

Sun Notch Trail Crater Lake hike map

Map of Sun Notch Trail, Crater Lake National Park; created using National Geographic Maps/AllTrails, (Check out the PDF version, interactive map, and MapMyHike track)


The hike

Sun Notch is situated off the East Rim Drive in Crater Lake National Park at the end of a long bend around Sun Meadow. A small parking area on the north side of the road marks the beginning of the short hike.

From the parking area, the Sun Notch Trail bears northwest through a stand of hemlocks, firs, and pines, eventually climbing to the edge of a sloping meadow. Here the trail splits, marking the start of the loop portion. Head left, rounding the circuit in a clockwise direction. The rocky promontory to the west is Applegate Peak (8,126’); to the east is Dutton Ridge (8,147’), a gently sloping mountain that ends abruptly at Dutton Cliff.


Applegate Peak from the Sun Notch Trail

At about 2/10 mile, the wide and dusty path rounds a single switchback, then bears northeast toward the edge of the cliff. Just past ¼ mile, hikers will come across the first of five viewpoints, a window overlooking Crater Lake with a framed view of the Phantom Ship, a small island that juts 170 feet out of the water.


Crater Lake with the Phantom Ship from the first overlook

The second viewpoint, situated a minute up the trail, provides a clear view across Crater Lake to sharp-sided Mount Thielsen (9,182’), the highest peak in the area. A third vista, just steps farther, peeks through an aperture to the northwest, where Wizard Island (6,940’) and Hillman Peak (8,151’) come into view.


Mount Thielsen in the distance


View of Wizard Island and Crater Lake’s western shores from the third vista

Continuing along the meadow for another 50 yards leads to a fourth overlook on the left. This overlook is particularly dramatic, as the cliffs on the near shore drop nearly 2,000 feet from the summit of Applegate Peak.


Garfield Peak and Cheski Slide from the fourth viewpoint

The fifth and final overlook offers another excellent view of the Phantom Ship and the multi-hued face of Dutton Cliff, an intimidating precipice high above the blue waters of Crater Lake. Further afield, Cloudcap (8,065’) towers over the lake’s eastern shores, with the cliffs around Cleetwood Cove beyond.


Epic view northeast to the Phantom Ship and Dutton Cliff


Close up of the Phantom Ship

At around 4/10 mile, the path begins to turn south, leaving the rim. Cutting across the meadow, the Sun Notch Trail descends back into a wooden patch. Now bearing west, the trail returns to the start of the loop at about 2/3 mile. From here, bear left and continue 1/10 mile back to the parking area.

Allot around 30-45 minutes for this short hike, one of the park’s easiest.

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Crater Lake National Park, OR


Crater Lake National Park, July 2017

Oregon’s Crater Lake, America’s deepest lake, is also arguably its bluest. Fed entirely by rain water and snowmelt, this natural wonder and centerpiece of Crater Lake National Park was formed after the explosion of an ancient volcano—Mount Mazama—about 7,700 years ago. Volcanic features dot the landscape around the lake, including the Pinnacles, a set of now-cooled pumice spires that were once channels for underground steam and gas. The 33-mile Rim Drive encircles the lake, while a bevy of hiking trails offer access to various viewpoints, canyons, and waterfalls. Visit in summer or early fall, as snowpack leads to road closures during much of the rest of the year.


Crater Lake from near the Rim Visitor Center


Wizard Island, accessed by boat from Cleetwood Cove


Crater Lake looking north


Vidae Falls, just off the East Rim Drive


View of Klamath Valley from East Rim Drive


Phantom Ship


View of Phantom Ship, Garfield Peak, and Crater Lake from an overlook on East Rim Drive




Pinnacles Overlook


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